Is Cryptocurrency Mining Still Profitable?

Josiah Nang-Bayi, MD
12 Min Read

Cryptocurrency mining has become a hot topic recently as prices skyrocketed. Mining creates new coins and validates blockchain transactions using high-powered computers. But does dedicating computing power to run as a miner actually translate to real profits these days? How much can you realistically earn?

This guide examines the true economics of cryptocurrency mining in 2023 and beyond to determine if it’s feasible to make money as a miner. We’ll analyze factors like hardware costs, electricity demand, mining rewards, price volatility, taxes, and more that impact mining profitability. By understanding the complex mining landscape, you can make informed decisions on possible mining pursuits.

Cryptocurrency Mining Overview

Let’s first quickly recap how crypto mining works. Mining is the process where high-performance computers compete to solve complex mathematical problems that validate transactions on a blockchain network in order to earn crypto rewards.

Specialized mining computers called “rigs” run algorithmic computations at high speeds. The collective computing power is called the “hashrate.”

Successfully completing a computation to confirm a “block” of network transactions earns the miner new cryptocurrency as a mining reward.

Mining serves the essential purpose of processing and securing blockchain network transactions in a decentralized manner.

Proof-of-work blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum rely heavily on mining. Proof-of-stake chains can operate with far less energy.

Mining revenue depends on mining equipment, hashrate, electricity costs, network difficulty, coin value, taxes and more.

What Are the Costs of Crypto Mining?

There are significant upfront and operating costs involved with crypto mining that determine if profits are possible:

Mining Hardware

Specialized high-performance ASIC mining rigs with strong computational power are essential for mining success. Hardware costs run from $1,500 to $5,000+ per rig. GPU mining rigs are in the $3,000 to $10,000 range. Budget at least $10,000 for a starter professional-grade mining setup. Some modern rigs include MicroBT, WhatsMiner M63S

Electricity Costs 

The energy demands of mining rigs are intensive, especially ASICs running 24/7. Electricity costs can be about 60% of operational expenses. Efficiency measured in watts per hashrate is important for profitability. Cheap $0.05 kWh electricity or less is ideal.

Facility Overhead

Professional mining facilities require robust infrastructure including cooling, ventilation, racks, and monitoring which add to costs. Maintaining optimal temperature control for mining rigs is critical. Expect added overhead expenses as a commercial operation.

Network Difficulty

As more miners contribute computing power, blockchain network difficulty rises requiring more hashes to earn rewards. Bitcoin’s hashrate is now over 200 exahashes per second. As difficulty rises, individual profits drop if hardware cannot keep pace.

Maintenance & Repairs

Mining rigs run hot and hard, requiring active maintenance and eventual replacement. Component failures can take rigs offline. Repair and troubleshooting costs add up. Proper operation is critical for maximum uptime and profit capture.


Mined cryptocurrencies are treated as taxable income. In the U.S., they incur ordinary income tax rates of 10% to 37% depending on amount. Taxes can consume 30% or more of mining revenue. Some deductions apply in certain cases.

Access to Markets

To ultimately convert mined crypto to cash, access to liquid exchange markets is required. If exchanges are limited in your country, realizing profits may be constrained or require creative approaches.

When all costs are accounted for, mining becomes very capital intensive with narrow profit margins unless both coin values and operational efficiency are high. Making your own mining rig has high costs with no guarantees of success. Smart cost management and risk mitigation is crucial.

How Much Can Crypto Mining Make?

To determine potential mining returns requires analysis of annual revenue minus annual costs:

Annual Mining Revenue =  [(Daily mining output) * (365 days) * (Current coin value)]

Annual Mining Costs =  [Hardware, electricity, repairs + taxes on revenue]

Returns on mining will constantly shift given volatility of cryptocurrency pricing, changing mining difficulty, hardware efficiency, and operational costs. But here are sample estimates:

Bitcoin Mining Revenue Potential

With advanced ASIC miners hashrate reaching 100-500+ terahashes per second and Bitcoin’s current $40k+ pricing, an individual miner could generate $15k – $100k in annual gross revenue. After costs, potential annual net profit might be $7k – $50k.

Ethereum Mining Revenue Potential

GPU mining rigs with hashrates of 500 megahashes- 1 gigahash per second mining Ethereum at its current $2k pricing could generate $15k – $40k in annual revenue. After electrical and other costs are factored in, annual profits from Ethereum mining range from $7k – $20k.

These are hypothetical ranges assuming ideal conditions. Actual results depend heavily on real efficiency numbers, fluctuations in coin pricing, mining difficulty changes, taxes, and operational management quality. Profitability requires constant monitoring and adaptation.

Key Factors That Determine Mining Profitability

Besides coin values, these variables play key roles in mining profitability:

Mining Hardware Efficiency

The energy efficiency of mining hardware measured in terahashes per watt is crucial. Rig efficiency determines hashing power per unit of electricity. The latest ASICs maximize this critical ratio. Efficiency gains translate directly to better profit margins.

Electricity Cost

Electricity is likely the largest operational cost. Cheap power at $0.05/kWh or less is vital for competitiveness. Some mining farms seek out cheap excess hydro power in remote areas to maximize profits per hash. But robust infrastructure has tradeoffs.

Automation & Maintenance

To maximize uptime and extend hardware life, mining requires solid automation for temperature, system health metrics, failovers and more. Detailed logs and alerting prevent outages. Robust maintenance keeps rigs in prime condition.

Mining Pool Fees

Joining a mining pool spreads out risk and reward. But pools take a percentage cut of mining proceeds in exchange. Select pools with lower transparent fees and reliable payout models to maximize earnings.

Taxes & Regulations

Plan for typical 30%+ tax rates on gross mining revenue. Some countries and states are also adding specific taxes on crypto mining itself. Know your obligations. Consider Location dynamics as crypto regulation evolves.

Is Crypto Mining Profitable? Assessment

When considering all the costs involved, crypto mining only tends to be consistently profitable today for:

Established commercial mining farms with large economies of scale, cheap electricity supply, ideal climate conditions, and deep technical expertise required to thrive on thin margins. Small hobby mining is largely unprofitable.

Newer coins still early in their lifecycle where network difficulty remains low. Once difficulty rises, profit economics shift rapidly. Some mines rotate through new low-difficulty coins.

Periods of extremely high coin valuations like bull runs that offset operating costs. But prices are unpredictable, and booms invite new miners. Profit ratios change constantly.

Entities with inherent advantages like very cheap electricity, excess capacity, or unique market access. This includes some corporations and state-sponsored groups.

For the typical individual without major advantages, the mining investment required usually does not balance out profits reliably long-term once all costs are accounted for. Network difficulty and competition rises quickly while valuations fluctuate dramatically. Profiting requires exceptional efficiency and factors within your control.

Should You Consider Crypto Mining?

Given the analysis above, here are some guidelines as you evaluate potential cryptocurrency mining:

Mine if accessing very cheap electricity: Sub $0.05/kWh rates may justify hardware costs and improve margins. Hydro power or other excess energy is ideal.

Mine newer coins still early in launch: Try mining new coins with lower network difficulty before competition spikes. Research security and technology factors.

Don’t expect quick profits: Have a long-term horizon of 1-2+ years to have a chance of recouping major hardware investments and operating expenses.

Consider mining funds or pool shares: Pools allow you to share risk and reward. Some funds enable fractional ownership of hashrate.

Diversify income streams: Do not rely on mining alone. The inherent volatility makes consistent income unreliable without strong risk management.

Understand technical operations: Serious mining requires networks, automation, monitoring, maintenance and expertise to maximize uptime and efficiency. Outsourcing adds costs.

Watch energy consumption: Power hungry miners may face restrictions where energy is carbon intensive. Regulations on mining continue to evolve.

Crypto mining can be profitable but generally requires major scale, expertise, access to resources or other advantages. Weigh costs and risks carefully before committing to mining. An alternative is to simply buy and hold cryptocurrency assets long term. For most individuals, mining crypto is high-risk and unlikely to produce dependable sustainable income. Proceed cautiously and only risk capital you can afford to lose.

Worthy Of Note

In recent times there have numerous attempts to simplify mining into user-friendly smartphone applications. Prominent among these projects are Pi Nework, Avive, ICE Network and more. These are newer projects mostly with promise, and you can mine for free at no cost.


Cryptocurrency mining will likely continue transitioning to an enterprise industry dominated by professional players. While mining can provide token income if done right, relying on it full time has challenges. Factors like operating expenses, coin volatility, regulations and taxes make consistent profits difficult. With sufficient capital, cheap power access, technical skills, and long-term perspective, crypto mining can generate moderate returns. But tread carefully as both costs and token values fluctuate constantly in unison. For most people, buying cryptocurrency may prove the safer and simpler choice over mining coins directly.

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Josiah Nang-Bayi, MD is a medical doctor by profession, an author, a financial literacy and digital assets enthusiast, an entrepreneur and a growing philanthropist.
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